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Study Guide Answers

1.     The outward appearance of lakes and streams has changed very little since when?
     the last ice age
2.     When did scientists in America and in Europe begin to notice something peculiar about the rain?
     in the 1960s
3.     By ______________________, hundreds of lakes in Europe and North America had died.
     1978
4.     What is the cause of the deaths of so many of the world's lakes?
     man-made pollution
5.     Acid rain is caused by __________________________________.
     pollution
6.     When pollution from automobiles, electrical power plants, or industrial facilities comes into contact with water, what is formed?
     acid
7.     What are the main pollutants that contribute to acid rain?
     sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and nitric oxide
8.     The three pollutants named in #7 (above) react with water in the _____________________________.
     air
9.     What are the main pollutants that contribute to acid rain?
     fine particulate matter ( FPM or aerosols )
10.     Acidity is measured on the _________________ scale, from _______________ to _______________.
     pH/ 0/ 14
11.     Neutral, on the pH scale, is _____________.
     seven
12.     On the pH scale, numbers from zero to six indicate ______________________, while numbers eight to fourteen indicate _____________________________ .
     acidity/ alkalinity
13.     What is the pH of normal rainfall?
     (5.6)
14.     Rainfall in the eastern U.S. is _______________ to ______________ times more acidic than is normal
     thirty/ forty
15.     Rain with the same acidity as vinegar has been recorded. True or false?
     true
16.     Where did rain have the same acidity as lemon juice?
     in Wheeling, West Virginia
17.     What, other than human activity, contributes to the acidity of rain?
     volcanic activity/ forest fires
18.     One half of all SO2 pollution in the U.S. comes from ______________________________ generation.
     electric power
19.     The burning of coal does not contribute to acid rain. True or false?
     false
20.     What's the main source of nitrogen oxide pollution?
     exhaust of automobiles and trucks
21.     Why were taller smoke stacks built after 1970?
     The EPA required that pollution levels be reduced near stationary sources. Taller stacks eject emissions higher into the atmosphere, away from the stationary source.
22.     ________________________ percent of the sulfate deposited in New York and New Jersey originates hundreds of miles away, mostly in the _______________________________.
     Seventy/ midwest
23.     What four states produce one-fourth of all the sulfur dioxide in the United States?
     Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky
24.     Where do prevailing winds carry the pollution that originates in the states named in #23 (above)?
     to the north and to the east
25.     Even the South Pole has received sulfate pollution because of Russian metal smelters. True or false?
     false
26.     Smog from Los Angeles pollutes the Grand Canyon. True or false?
     true
27.     The most commercially important copper ores are the ____________________________________.
     sulfides
28.     Where are some of the most acid-sensitive lakes found?
     in the Rocky Mountains and in the Sierra Nevada Mountains
29.     The ability of a lake to absorb acid is called its "_________________________________________."
     buffering capacity
30.     High mountain lakes have a [high/ low] buffering capacity.
     low
31.     Which lakes have a natural capacity to absorb and neutralize acid?
     lakes that lie over alkaline rocks and lakes that receive windblown alkaline soil
32.     Rocky Mountain lakes lie over _____________________________________.
     granite
33.     In what season do mountain lakes receive an intense infusion of acidity? Why?
     spring/ In spring, lakes receive water from melted snow.
34.     What expression describes the phenomenon referred to in #33 (above)?
     acid shock/ spring shock
35.     Fish populations are endangered in more than ______________________ of the Adirondack's lakes.
     half
36.     Most fish cannot survive below what pH number?
     five
37.     Water lilies that die because of acidity are often replaced by _______________________________.
     green algae
38.     In Sweden, ____________________________ lakes have been acidified.
     18,000
39.     By 1982, ___________________percent of Germany's forests had been damaged by acid rain.
     eight
40.     What percent of Germany's forests had been damaged by acid rain in 1987?
     50%
41.     What are the first signs that a forest is experiencing acid rain damage?
     yellowing of foliage and then, leaves and needles are lost
42.     Acid in the soil dissolves ____________________________ and leaches it into lakes and streams.
     mercury
43.     Acid in the atmosphere can cause respiratory illness in human beings. True or false?
     true
44.     Acid rain damage to structures in the Unites States exceeds ____________________ dollars annually.
     two billion
45.     When did the U.S. Congress pass the "Clean Air Act"?
     in 1970
© Educational Video Network, Inc. 2005 - www.evndirect.com
Your leading source for curriculum-based educational videos and DVDs.