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Study Guide Answers

1.     The capital of the Incan Empire was a.Lima b.Nazca c.Cuzco d.Quito
     c.Cuzco
2.     The dominant mountain range of South America is the __________________ .
     Andes
3.     In general, there is [more/less] rain in the southern part of western South America than in the northern region.
     more
4.     The Humboldt Current along the western coast of South America is a [warm/cold] current that drains the moisture from air and maintains the Peruvian desert climate.
     cold
5.     The Spanish capital of Peru was ______________________ .
     Lima
6.     In pre-Columbian times, control of the region was most often centered in the [highlands/lowlands].
     highlands
7.     Most of the rivers that flow from the mountains of Peru and Ecuador flow toward the [north/south/east/west].
     east
8.     Once an important Incan city, ________________ is the capital of Ecuador.
     Quito
9.     The fortress that defended the Incan capital was: a.Pachacamac b.Ingapirca c.Sacsayhuamán d.Tiahuanaco
     c. Sacsayhuamán
10.     The vast high plateau that covers ten percent of the Bolivian nation and is home to about seventy percent of its population is known as the _________________________ .
     Altiplano
11.     Lake _____________________ is the large freshwater inland sea on the border of Bolivia and Peru.
     Titicaca
12.     The highest capital city in the world is: a.La Paz b.Tiahuanaco c.Ingapirca d.Sucre
     a.La Paz
13.     As a general rule in South America, the maximum altitude for agriculture is: a.11,000 feet b.12,000 feet c.13,000 feet d.8,000 feet
     c.13,000 feet
14.     The land too high for cultivation in South America is known as "___________________ ."
     puna
15.     The eastern slope of the mountains in South America contains [more/less] vegetation than the western slope.
     more
16.     How do the climate and terrain of western South America compare to your own?
     discussion
17.     As the last of the great South American pre-Columbian civilizations, the Incas exceeded their predecessors in all of the arts. True or false?
     false
18.     The warm waters of the Humboldt Current provide an abundant supply of fish close to the shore of western South America. True or false?
     false
19.     What was the most important food crop developed by early South American farmers?
     white potato
20.     Early South Americans created beautiful textiles from which plant?
     cotton
21.     The form of agriculture that relies on periodically clearing new lands for planting is called _________-________-__________.
     slash-and-burn
22.     Highland farmers created _______________________ , on which they cultivated crops more efficiently than they did by using other methods.
     terraces
23.     The most important domesticated animal in Andean America is the __________________ .
     llama
24.     A rodent that is still favored as a source of meat by many highland Indians is the _________________ .
     guinea pig
25.     The earliest surviving religious structure in Peru, The Temple of the Crossed Hands, is found at: a.Lima b.Nazca c.Huánuco d.Moche
     c.Huánuco
26.     The early Peruvian culture that showed the most interest in everyday life was that of the ______________ .
     Moche
27.     The South American culture famous for the outlined figures that it left drawn in the desert is the ________________ .
     Nazca
28.     Civilizations of the Peruvian desert region used ________________ _______________ as their primary building material.
     adobe bricks
29.     The Gate of the Sun is a prominent feature of: a.Pachacámac b.Tiahuanaco c.Machu Picchu d.Tambo Huaycan
     b.Tiahuanaco
30.     The cultural center of the Bolivian Altiplano was __________________________ .
     Tiahuanaco
31.     How did members of the ancient Peruvian civilizations till their agricultural plots?
     digging sticks
32.     Which of the cultural artifacts of ancient Peruvian cultures do you find the most interesting? Why?
     discussion
33.     According to Incan tribal legend, the Incas originated on an island. Where was this island?
     Lake Titicaca
34.     The creator god of the Incas was: a.Inti b.Manco Capac c.Mama-ocllo d.Viracocha
     d.Viracocha
35.     The first Inca was called _________________ ____________________ .
     Manco Capac
36.     The Incas settled in the valley of _______________________ .
     Cuzco
37.     Prince Yupanqui defeated the Chancan confederation outside the Incan capital in 1438. What name did he assume when he became ruler? a.Viracocha b.Tambo Machay c.Pachacuti d.Chanca-oso
     c.Pachacuti
38.     The Incas used ___________________ for most of their building projects.
     stones
39.     The Intihuatana, or "hitching post of the sun," is located at ____________ ____________ .
     Machu Picchu
40.     The Incas called their empire "Twantinsuyu." What does this mean?
     Land of the Four Quarters
41.     The Inca who added the greatest amount of territory to the empire was: a.Manco Capac b.Pachacuti c.Tupac d.Huascar
     c.Tupac
42.     The "chosen women" who served the Incan rulers and the state religion were called: a.Tambos b.Mamaconas c.Chasquis d.Quipucamayocs
     b.Mamaconas
43.     The knotted and colored strings used by the Incas to keep inventory records are called __________________ .
     quipus
44.     The storage depots that housed surplus produce and provided lodging for travelers on the royal roads of the Incas were called __________________ .
     tambos
45.     The language of the Incas is _______________________ .
     Quechua
46.     The disputed succession of Huayna Capac involved the half-brothers Huascar and Atahualpa. Who won the civil war?
     Atahualpa
47.     The Incan Empire was conquered by: a.Pizzaro b.Cortez c.Coronado d.Balboa
     a.Pizzaro
48.     Though efficient in providing for its citizens, the Incan Empire was ruthlessly intolerant of dissent. Are there any comparable governments in the world today? How much control are you willing to sacrifice to a government that will keep you comfortable?
     discussion
49.     About how long did the Spanish rule the South American lands that were once ruled by the Incas?
     nearly 300 years
50.     Which city is older, Cuzco or Lima?
     Cuzco
51.     What religion did the Spanish bring to South America?
     Christianity ( Catholicism )
52.     Name three domesticated animals introduced by the Spanish to South America.
     cattle, burros, horses, pigs, sheep, goats
53.     Which of the following grains is of American origin? a.wheat b.rice c.maize d.barley
     c.maize
54.     Name two of the imported crops that became important to the plantation system of South America.
     coffee, bananas, sugar cane
55.     What technological innovation did the Spanish introduce to help textile workers in South America?
     shuttle-type loom
56.     What simple machine did the Spanish introduce to the native potters?
     potter's wheel
57.     The successful fight for independence from Spain was led by descendants of the Incan ruling class. True or false?
     false
58.     The ouster of Spanish overlords resulted in a more equitable distribution of the wealth in South America. True or false?
     false
59.     Andean lands today are largely a mixture of prosperous urban modernity and subsistent rural villages. True or false?
     true
60.     The land once occupied by the Incan Empire is now part of [more/lfewer] than three nations.
     more
61.     How did the conquest of the Incan Empire benefit the Incas? How did it affect them adversely? In what ways did the lives of most Incas remain fairly constant?
     discussion
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