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Study Guide Answers

1.     An experiment is a(n) _________________________, or a series of __________________, designed to either ____________________ or __________________________ a theory.
     test/ tests/ support/ reject
2.     A "theory" is ____________________________________________________________.
     a reasonable guess as to why things work the way they do
3.     A "cause and effect" relationship exists when one ____________________ affects, or changes another.
     variable
4.     Without experimentation, there are only ____________________________, ____________________, and _________________________________________________ .
     superstition/ mythology/ speculation
5.     When you conduct and document an experiment, what do you create?
     a series of instructions that make your experiment replicable
6.     The universally accepted steps to follow when conducting an experiment are known as "___________________________________________________________."
     the scientific method
7.     What is the first step?
     observation
8.     Establish a(n) ___________________________________ that you want to solve.
     mystery
9.     The formation of the question is also known as the "_________________________________________________________________."
     identification of the problem
10.     An educated guess at the answer to your question is your ___________________________.
     hypothesis
11.     The "if. . .then" statement is the _____________________________.
     hypothesis
12.     The "prediction" is a formal way to _____________________________________________.
     restate the hypothesis
13.     The prediction has ____________________________ parts.
     three
14.     How can you determine whether or not a cause-and-effect relationship exists?
     Run an experiment.
15.     What should you write before you begin your experiment?
     a list of required tools and materials and a series of instructions that will direct you from start to finish
16.     What's an "independent variable"?
     a factor that's adjusted to a different value by the experimenter
17.     What'a a "dependent variable"?
     a factor whose value changes because of a change in the independent variable
18.     A "control" is a(n) "__________________________________________________________."
     standard for comparison
19.     Subjects are ___________________________ assigned to the control and experimental groups.
     randomly
20.     What helps the experimenter to maintain objectivity?
     keeping the subjects anonymous
21.     What's a "blind study"?
     one in which the researcher is unaware of which subjects have been assigned to which groups
22.     Experimenters control all _____________________________ variables.
     extraneous
23.     The actual written record of observations is the "_____________________________."
     data
24.     The "X axis" is the "_____________________________."
     abscissa
25.     The "Y axis" is the "______________________________."
     ordinate
26.     Which variable is usually designated on the abscissa?
     the independent variable
27.     Which variable is usually designated on the ordinate?
     the dependent variable
28.     The evaluation of the results of your experiment is the step known as "_________________."
     analysis
29.     What is generally used to determine whether differences between groups are real or due to chance?
     statistical procedures
30.     If differences are due to chance fewer than five times out of one hundred, what is assumed?
     that the independent variable indeed caused the differences between the two groups
31.     What does your "conclusion" state?
     whether or not the data support the hypothesis
32.     What should you consider, when evaluating your experiment?
     other variables that might be important
33.     Where should research always point you?
     in the direction of new avenues for experimentation
© Educational Video Network, Inc. 2005 - www.evndirect.com
Your leading source for curriculum-based educational videos and DVDs.