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Study Guide Answers

1.     A human egg is about the same size as what?
     It's about the size of a period at the of a sentence.
2.     Cells must divide by __________________________ or ________________________.
     mitosis/ meiosis
3.     Most cells of our body have ________________ chromosomes.
     46
4.     Sex cells are also called "_____________________________."
     gametes
5.     Sex cells divide by what process?
     meiosis
6.     From the ninth week of pregnancy until birth, a developing human is called a(n) "__________________."
     fetus
7.     What is the main function of the male reproductive system?
     to produce sperm and to deliver them to the female
8.     The male gamete is a(n) _______________________.
     sperm
9.     What three parts make up a sperm?
     a head, a midpiece, and a tail
10.     What does the head of a sperm contain?
     the nucleus
11.     With what is the head of a sperm covered? What is its purpose?
     an enzyme-coated cap/ It helps the sperm to penetrate an egg.
12.     Where are the energy-producing mitochondria of the sperm found?
     in its midpiece
13.     What is on a sperm's tail?
     a flagellum that propels it
14.     Where are sperm produced?
     in the testicles, or testes
15.     The testicles are located in the ________________________________.
     scrotum
16.     Why is the scrotum sac located outside a male's body?
     Sperm can be produced only in an environment that's 3 degrees Centigrade cooler than the temperature of the human body.
17.     Where do sperm complete their maturation?
     in a tube called the "epididymis"
18.     What duct transports sperm from the epididymis toward the ejaculatory ducts and the urethra?
     the vas deferens
19.     What tube transports sperm and urine out of the male's body?
     the urethra
20.     The fluid that carries sperm from the male's body is called "___________________________."
     semen
21.     The prostate gland is shaped like a(n) ________________________________.
     doughnut
22.     The females's vagina is [alkaline/acidic].
     acidic
23.     Another name for the female gamete is the _______________________.
     egg
24.     An oviduct is sometimes called a(n) "______________________________________________."
     fallopian tube
25.     The bottom part of the uterus, which connects it to the vagina is the _________________________.
     cervix
26.     What connects each ovary to the uterus?
     an oviduct (fallopian tube)
27.     The process of an egg rupturing through the ovary wall and moving toward the uterus is what?
     ovulation
28.     How long is one menstrual cycle?
     usually, about 28 days
29.     What controls a menstrual cycle?
     hormones
30.     What three phases make up a menstrual cycle?
     the flow phase, the follicular phase, the luteal phase
31.     A group of cells surrounding an undeveloped egg in the ovaries is a(n) ______________________.
     follicle
32.     Hormones secreted by the _________________________________ thicken the uterus and increase its blood supply.
     corpus luteum
33.     Secondary sex characteristics develop during _________________________________.
     puberty
34.     The glands of what system secrete hormones during puberty?
     the endocrine system
35.     What hormone stimulates the development of a follicle in the ovary?
     FSH - follicle-stimulating hormone
36.     What female sex hormone is responsible for the growth and development of the female reproductive system?
     estrogen
37.     What hormone causes endocrine cells in the testes to produce testosterone?
     LH - luteinizing hormone
38.     About how many sperm are likely to enter the vagina at one time?
     350 million
39.     Once a sperm enters an egg, the egg changes its _______________________________________. What is the result of this action?
     electrical charge/ All other sperm are prevented from entering the egg.
40.     The nuclei of the sperm and the egg combine to form a(n) ___________________________.
     zygote
41.     As the zygote travels to the uterus, it becomes a(n) ______________________________.
     blastocyst
42.     What's a "blastocyst"?
     a hollow ball of cells that becomes a fetus
43.     ___________________________________ occurs when a blastocyst attaches itself to the lining of the uterus.
     Implantation
44.     What substance serves as a shock absorber for the developing embryo?
     amniotic fluid
45.     Blood vessels of the _______________________________________ form the umbilical cord.
     allantois membrane
46.     What structure allows nutrients and oxygen to pass from the mother to the embryo?
     the placenta
47.     The mother's blood vessels are connected to the placenta. True or false?
     false/ They lie close to the placenta and allow for diffusion.
48.     A human's development in its mother's uterus is called the "______________________ period."
     gestation
49.     What are the three stages of pregnancy called?
     trimesters
50.     Why does a fetus's head rotate downward during the ninth month of pregnancy?
     because of the shape of the uterus and because the head is the heaviest part of the fetus's body
51.     What is the purpose of amniocentesis?
     It yields cells that doctors can analyze to gain information about the health of the fetus.
52.     What procedure allows a doctor to see into a woman's uterus?
     ultrasound
53.     What are the three stages of birth?
     dilation, expulsion, placental stage
54.     What is delivered after the birth of the child?
     the afterbirth
55.     What is left after the umbilical cord dries up and falls off?
     the navel
© Educational Video Network, Inc. 2005 - www.evndirect.com
Your leading source for curriculum-based educational videos and DVDs.